4C infographic how emissions affect atmospheric concentrations and lead to temperature rise

4C animated infographic

In the 4C project we work to better understand how emissions affect atmospheric concentrations and lead to temperature rise. We'll inform the Global Stocktake and help policy makers and governments take the appropriate measures to keep global warming below the Paris Agreement’s goal of 2ºC. 

Learn more by watching our animated infographic:

Global Carbon Budget record decrease in global CO2 emissions in 2020

COVID-19 restriction measures caused an unprecedented drop of 2.4 billion tonnes of CO2 in 2020

Global fossil CO2 emissions are expected to decline approximately 2.4 billion tonnes of CO2 (GtCO2) in 2020, a record drop caused by COVID-19 confinement measures in place. It means that this year fossil CO2 emissions are predicted to be 34 GtCO2, 7% lower than in 2019. These are the main results of the 15th edition of the Global Carbon Budget, which has been released on 11 December by the Global Carbon Project. 

Virtual Emergent Constraints and Tipping Points Workshop 23 26 November 2020

Emergent Constraints and Tipping Points Workshop

These collaborative workshops bring together Climate Scientists, Mathematicians and Ecologists to answer key questions around the relationships between the variability and sensitivity of the Earth System and its subcomponents.

The first workshop will discuss proposed emergent constraints on future projections, many of which are based-on assumed relationships between sensitivity and variability.

Climate Science2Policy CS2P workshop on 17 18 November 2020


The European Commission has announced the organisation of a Climate Science2Policy workshop (CS2P workshop) to bring together Horizon 2020 projects related to climate science and policy makers. The main goal is to identify and discuss key policy-relevant messages and research requirements to achieve the climate targets of the European Green Deal, as well as other climate change related policies and programmes.

Climate classroom The main drivers of changes in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere


The carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere is affected by both natural processes and anthropogenic emissions. Distinguishing the short-term variations in CO2 levels due to natural processes from human emissions is important for calculating the carbon budget and pushing for action to mitigate the effects of climate change. 

Here, we explore the four main drivers of the changes in the level of CO2 in the atmosphere in the order of their contributions to weekly and monthly variations (from greatest to smallest).

Ocean acidification in the Arctic will be greater than previously expected


The ocean absorbs around a quarter of atmospheric CO2 released by anthropogenic sources. While this uptake mitigates global warming, it also disrupts the seawater chemistry. The additional CO2 in the ocean reduces its pH and the amount of calcium carbonate minerals, an effect known as ocean acidification. This reduction in calcium carbonate minerals negatively affects the growth and survival rates of calcifying marine organisms, such as corals and shellfish, which depend on these minerals to build their skeletons and shells. 

Temporary drop in CO2 emissions as a result of COVID 19 crisis

Change in global daily fossil CO2 emissions

Confinement measures have been adopted by many nations around the world since the beginning of 2020 in an attempt to contain the spread of COVID-19. With a great part of the world’s population forced to stay at home, these measures have brought about drastic changes in energy demand, transport and consumption patterns.