Marine primary production is the foundation of the marine food chain and ocean ecosystems. It primarily occurs via photosynthesis by phytoplankton, which use inorganic carbon and nutrients to produce organic matter.
The 4C Carbon Outlook, released in November 2021, is warning that stronger climate policies are needed to trigger the necessary short-term action to reduce CO2 emissions sufficiently in the coming decade to keep the option for 1.5°C alive.
The UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP) is the yearly summit that brings together world leaders, scientists and civil society to discuss greenhouse gas emissions and the measures that have been taken or need to be taken to address climate change.
The conference is crucial for negotiating action to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees and aiming at 1.5 degrees, in line with the Paris Agreement, which was first adopted during COP21 in 2015.
COP26 is the 26th COP summit, taking place in Glasgow, UK between 31 October and 12 November 2021.
The carbon budget is a powerful concept developed in the last decade to assess how much additional carbon dioxide (CO2) humans can emit before a temperature target will be reached with a given probability. It provides critical knowledge to policymakers in order to prepare appropriate mitigation plans.
Better understanding the relationship between the temperature increase and cumulative CO2 emissions is crucial in determining how the global mean temperature will change after emissions reach zero.
As part of 4C, a European project researching climate-carbon interactions in the current century, four new datasets related with carbon dioxide (CO2) have been prepared and are now available to download. These datasets provide important information and data for climate research. They cover the following topics:
The Southern Ocean dominates the oceanic uptake of human-made CO2. Projections show that the world's largest oceanic carbon sink will be able to absorb about 244 billion tons of carbon from the atmosphere over the period from 1850 to 2100 under a high emissions scenario.
Carbon is an important element for life on Earth. It is found in all components of the Earth system: the atmosphere, land, lithosphere and oceans, which serve as carbon reservoirs. The processes through which carbon is exchanged between these reservoirs make-up the global carbon cycle.
This first global stocktake by researchers at the University of East Anglia (UEA), Stanford University and the Global Carbon Project examined progress in cutting fossil CO2 emissions since the Paris Agreement was adopted in 2015.
In the 4C project we work to better understand how emissions affect atmospheric concentrations and lead to temperature rise. We'll inform the Global Stocktake and help policy makers and governments take the appropriate measures to keep global warming below the Paris Agreement’s goal of 2ºC.
Learn more by watching our animated infographic: