Nutrients from rivers and coastal erosion are of crucial importance for the Arctic Ocean ecosystem finds a 4C study

ocean ice

Marine primary production is the foundation of the marine food chain and ocean ecosystems. It primarily occurs via photosynthesis by phytoplankton, which use inorganic carbon and nutrients to produce organic matter. 

Supporting policymaking at COP26 4C brings policy relevant climate research to the summit


The UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP) is the yearly summit that brings together world leaders, scientists and civil society to discuss greenhouse gas emissions and the measures that have been taken or need to be taken to address climate change. 

The conference is crucial for negotiating action to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees and aiming at 1.5 degrees, in line with the Paris Agreement, which was first adopted during COP21 in 2015. 

COP26 is the 26th COP summit, taking place in Glasgow, UK between 31 October and 12 November 2021. 

Global average temperature projected to remain constant after reaching zero CO2 emissions according to 4C report


The carbon budget is a powerful concept developed in the last decade to assess how much additional carbon dioxide (CO2) humans can emit before a temperature target will be reached with a given probability. It provides critical knowledge to policymakers in order to prepare appropriate mitigation plans.

Better understanding the relationship between the temperature increase and cumulative CO2 emissions is crucial in determining how the global mean temperature will change after emissions reach zero.

4C researchers release new datasets


As part of 4C, a European project researching climate-carbon interactions in the current century, four new datasets related with carbon dioxide (CO2) have been prepared and are now available to download. These datasets provide important information and data for climate research. They cover the following topics:

4C infographic how emissions affect atmospheric concentrations and lead to temperature rise

4C animated infographic

In the 4C project we work to better understand how emissions affect atmospheric concentrations and lead to temperature rise. We'll inform the Global Stocktake and help policy makers and governments take the appropriate measures to keep global warming below the Paris Agreement’s goal of 2ºC. 

Learn more by watching our animated infographic: